Friday, 6 February 2015

Red Cloud and American Horse

Red Cloud and American Horse
This photograph was taken in 1891 by the Grabill Portrait and View Co., Deadwood S.D. 
(South Dakota). The image is of two Native Americans 'Red Cloud' and 'American Horse' , The overall symbolism of the image is of the infusion of Native Americans with that of 19th century US civilized culture. The image shows how far the Native American has had to submit (either voluntarily or not) to the control of the 'white man'. The setting of the image is that of a clear or plain landscape with the two Natives  stood in front of a traditional native tee-pee, this along with the wearing of a native feather headdress by 'American Horse' are a clear identifier of native efforts to maintain a cultural identity , However, the extensive western style attire worn by 'Red Cloud',  (i.e. hat, jacket, trouser) as well as the wearing of items that show the conversion of certain natives to accepting western technologies i.e. revolver and a time piece/pocket watch. additionally the positions held by the subjects are more subtle in the representation of cultural conversion , the symbolic 'hand shake' portrays how native have also adopted modern customs. 

However, the symbolism of this photo is deliberately exacerbated to promote inter-culture relations in the US at this time, (1891), as the photo was taken by a independent photograph company, in a non-frontier region the image is heavy set to promote greater submission by the native to US cultural dominance 

Monday, 2 February 2015

The Wampanoag Tribe

The Wampanoag tribe originate from South eastern Massachusetts between the eastern shore of Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island to the western end of Cape Cod. This also included the coastal islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.

In the 1600s the tribe had as many as 12000 people divided between 40 different villages, however many died due to illness so by 1620 when the Pilgrims landed, roughly only 2000 Wampanoag had survived.

The Wampanoag people made peace with the Englishmen, providing them with corn and other resources to try and help them through the winter and finally signing a treaty of land.

Today, there are two main Wampanoag tribes, the Wampanoag of Gay Head and the Mashpee Wampanoag, however there history is shown at the Plymouth Plantation alongside the Pilgrims in live re-enactments.


native americans of Alska

according to this map.
The state with the density population is Alaska. I have one theory as to why this might have originally been, it was so cold there that few colonists had an in settling there so most of it was left to the native population. to this day there are 17 different tribe living in Alaska. the names of the different tribes are the Ahtna tribe, the Aleut tribe, the Aluutiq tribe, the Eyak tribe, the Gwich'in tribe, the Haida tribe, the Han tribe, the Holikachuk tribe, the Ingalik tribe  (Degxit'an), the Inupiaq tribe (Inuit), the Kolchan tribe, the Koyukon tribe, the Tanaina tribe, the Tanana tribe, the Tlingit tribe, the Tsimshian tribe and the Yupik  tribe.

The Mississippi Choctaw Indians

The Mississippi Choctaw Indians

The Mississippi band Choctaw Indians have been a federally recognized American Indian tribe since 1945 and they have recently (2011) elected their first female tribal chief.

 (Chief Phyliss J. Anderson) 

The Choctaw became the first of the "Five civilized tribes" in the 19th century because they had adapted many practices from Americans. The Choctaw Indians were also the first Native Americans to be forced under the Indian removal act, and when the first removal treaty was signed the Mississippi Choctaw became one of the first major non-European ethnic groups to become American citizens. The Mississippi Choctaw were now seen as American citizens even though they lived in 'America' long before the Americans.

The Choctaw Indian tribe is currently located over 35,000 acres in ten different Mississippi counties, and they currently have 10,000 members which are split between eight reservation communities.  The tribe contributes to the states economy by providing permanent, full time jobs for over 5,000 people, including non-tribal members.

The website provides a detailed history of the tribe as well as information on their culture, such as their language, dances, and traditions. It also provides details of tourist destinations to visit to support the tribe and to learn about the Choctaw. There is a mix of traditional Choctaw activities for tourists to experience and modern activities. For example, there is a cultural center which teaches classes on traditional art, as well as other Choctaw traditions. The tribe also advertises a hotel and casino and a Choctaw shopping center which show how the tribe has developed their own businesses to provide for their people. Although these new activities may be advertised the website states that "still, no matter how much change comes to the Reservation, one constant remains - the traditional culture of the Choctaw people." This shows that although the Choctaw people have had to adapt to modern life, they have not forgotten their traditions and culture.

 (Image of the Choctaw festival)

Please post in time for the small group meeting - Monday morning is TOO LATE

Sunday, 1 February 2015

The Cherokee

Visiting the Cherokee Nation

Since the 16th Century, when the Europeans first made contact with the Americas, the Cherokee were considered and identified as the most socially and culturally advanced amongst the Native American tribes. Today, the Cherokee Nation "is an active leader in education, housing, vocational training, business and economic development". As the largest Indian tribe in the US, the Cherokee have over 300,000 citizens and over 70,000 reside in a 7,000 square mile geographical area, which is not a reservation but a federally-recognised, truly sovereign nation. This is a radical step forward for the tribe that had not too long ago been deprived of any recognisable sovereign rights in the United States of America.

"Cherokees are not only a people of the past, but a people of the present and future."

This line, on the homepage of the attractions part of the website, portrays the Cherokee as a strong and everlasting tribe as on the same page it mentions the famous 'Trail of Tears'. It's an almost ominous sentence as it shows that the Cherokee are there to stay, they were there before the USA was established and will be long after. It seems that the tribe adapts to new surroundings by moving forward and bringing their rich heritage and traditions with them to their new home.

The tribe's transferable lifestyle allows them to thrive in any situation or location as they originated from the plains and now reside in the state of Oklahoma where they have secured sovereignty over their land and became recognisable as a nation. They advertise visiting them through the website with sections on their casinos, galleries, museums, gift shops and much more. This shows them as business-forward as they manage to exploit their history in a positive way to fund their future as a tribe. 

The pictures used on their website seem to highlight both the traditional and modern traits of the Cherokee tribe by advertising visiting their national heritage centre using pictures of their traditional housing. Their 'cultural tourism' picture shows both old and young members of the tribe in a mixture of native and modern dress, as if fusing together the past, present and future of their nation. This only seems to reinforce their ideas of "not only [being] a people of the past, but a people of the present and future". Their rich heritage only seems to continue as they develop and evolve in their new situations.